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Lymphoma Or Lymph System?

Blood cancer is grossly subdivided into 3 categories:

  • Leukemias( acute and chronic)
  • Myeloma
  • Lymphomas

The lymph which contains nutrition elements, waste products of metabolism and mainly white blood cells, moves through a series of lymph nodes and vessels. This whole system is called the lymph system.

Hence, the lymph system protects the body but however, lymph cells or lymphocytes can turn into cancerous. The cancers which are caused by the lymph system are called lymphomas.

There are more than 70 types of cancer of lymphomas. The body organs that can be affected by the lymphomas include:

  • Thymus
  • Bone Marrow
  • Spleen
  • Tonsils
  • Lymph nodes

When To Suspect Lymphoma?

  • Long-standing on and off fever,
  • Bone pain
  • Enlarged tonsils or nodes in neck, underarms, inside of thighs or elsewhere in the body ( determined by physician)

these symptoms warns for the possibility of lymphoma. Basically, the lymph nodes are small and soft nodules beneath the skin. The lymph nodes can be found at the neck, upper chest, armpits, stomach and groin area.

Other symptoms of the Lymphoma include:

  • Pain in bones
  • Cough problems
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Spleen enlargement
  • Fever
  • Rashes on skin
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Breath shortness

Risk Factors Of Lymphoma

There is no particular cause of the Lymphoma, but many risk factors are associated with it, such as:

  • HIVs or AIDS or post organ transplant.
  • Age: People having age more than 60 are most likely to suffer from Lymphoma. However, some particular types of lymphoma are common in children and infants too.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis and celiac disease
  • Infection: Hepatitis C, Heliobacter pylori, human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic (HTLV-1) or Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Chemical Exposure: Exposure to chemicals like pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides are also having more chances.

Causes Of Lymphoma:

Cancer results because of the uncontrolled growth of the cells. The lifetime of a cell is very short. But however, in people suffering from lymphoma, the cells spread instead of dying.

Currently, there is not an identifiable cause of lymphoma, however, there are some risk factors.

Types Of Lymphoma:

Lymphoma is classified into its two major types Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Let’s know in detail about these…

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma:

According to many researches, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is three times more common in comparison to Hodgkin’s.

There are many types of lymphoma which fall under a different category. The types are as per the effect of cells, their growth rate. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in either T-cells or B-cells of the immune system

The different types of lymphoma fall into this category are:

  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  • T-cell lymphoma
  • Burkitt’s lymphoma
  • Follicular lymphoma
  • Mantle cell lymphoma
  • Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma
  • Small lymphocytic lymphoma

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma:

The lymphomas in this category are:

  • Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s disease
  • Lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin’s disease
  • Mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s disease
  • Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma

How To Diagnose And Analyze The Stage Of Lymphoma?

Biopsy diagnoses of lymph node or other accessible mass and Immunohistochemistry and staged by PETCT, Blood tests and heart fitness is also required for treatment purpose.

Also, lymphomas are stage from I to IV

Who Treats Lymphoma Cancer?

Lymphomas are highly curable cancers. Even stage IV lymphomas can be cured successfully. Lymphomas are treated by Chemotherapy +/- Targeted therapy ( depends upon biopsy report) and some times low doses radiotherapy is also needed.

Low-grade lymphomas many times don’t require any treatment.